Saturday, December 30, 2017

Testing Phone Fields- Part I- US Phones

Phone number fields are without a doubt the most time-consuming thing I have ever tested.  This seems so unlikely- phone numbers are standardized to ten digits in the US, so how can they cause so many headaches?  The answer is that, as we saw with Zip codes, there are so many ways to get them wrong.

If you are fortunate enough to be testing a new application without any existing data, you can fend off most phone number headaches by clearly establishing validation rules for phone number fields.  The easiest type of validation is one that accepts ten digits only, and no other characters.  The developer can rely on UI formatting to put the number in an easily-readable format rather than expecting the user to do it themselves.  The reason why this is the best course of action is that allowing the user to add in formatting creates all sorts of ambiguity.  If my phone number is 800-867-5309, how might I type that in?  Just with dashes, or will I use parentheses, such as (800) 867-5309?  What about the older format of 1-800-867-5309?  With that format, I now have eleven digits.  

Many developers try to accommodate all styles in the mistaken notion that this will make things easier for the user, but this actually makes things much more complicated.  If both parentheses and dashes are allowed, there needs to be some sort of regex used for the validation.  Otherwise, a user could type in something like ((800)--867 5309 and the number will be accepted.  If the developer you are working with has decided that he or she would like to make it easy on the user by accepting parentheses and dashes, try entering values like 800--867--5309, 800(867)5309, and 8-0-0-867-5309.  After you have demonstrated that it's possible to enter a badly formatted phone number, the developer's strategy may change.

As with Zip codes, it's important to consider how the phone number is saved to the database.  The best strategy for US phone numbers is to strip out any formatting and save the number as just the ten digits.  That way the number can be displayed in any way the UI designer deems appropriate.

Next, it's time to think about how bad phone numbers will be displayed to the user.  If a number has been saved with formatting, will it be displayed with that formatting?  Will some attempt be made to strip the formatting?  Will it be displayed at all?  I have seen all kinds of bad numbers in databases.  One of my favorites was "dad's office number".  No one can format that!  A good strategy would be to format any ten-digit number by stripping out all of the non-number characters, and then adding in whatever format is desired for display.  If the phone number is eleven digits and starts with a 1, the leading 1 could be stripped off and then the number could be formatted for display.  With any other values, the "number" could be displayed as-is, or it could not be displayed at all.  Whatever is decided, it's important to test with whatever bad numbers are currently in the database. 

Another wrinkle not often considered is phone extensions.  Many offices still use extensions to direct a call to a specific person.  Sometimes phone fields allow extensions as part of the number, but this is a bad idea, for the same reasons that allowing the user to format their own number is a bad idea.  Phone extensions can be any number of digits, so allowing them as part of the phone number means that now the validation can't expect a specific number of digits.  Also, how might the user indicate that an extension is part of the number?  Will they enter 800-867-5309 ext. 1234800-867-5309x1234?  Allowing these types of variations will mean allowing letters and other characters, which it makes it more difficult to validate.  A far better solution is to include a separate field for an extension.  If your developer expresses interest in including the extension as part of the phone field, some testing with entries like 8008675309extextext...1234 will probably dissuade them. 

Finally, remember to test editing phone numbers, especially numbers that are in an incorrect format.  What will happen when the user has a phone number like 800-867-530 and tries to edit another field on the form?  Will they be notified upon saving that the number is incorrect and needs fixing?  This can be a good way to involve users in cleaning their own data.  What should happen when the user tries to fix an invalid number?  Ideally they should be able to save the value with a new valid number. 

I hope that this post has emphasized the importance of having good phone field validation.  If you are fortunate enough to be testing a brand-new application with an empty database, taking good care to ensure that only valid phone numbers are saved to the database, you will prevent many testing headaches in the future! 

This post only tackled United States phone numbers.  In my next post, I will take on the even greater challenge of international phone numbers! 


Friday, December 8, 2017

Testing Date Fields

Date fields are another data type that seems simple to test.  After all, dates are standard throughout the world: there's a month, a day of the month, and a year.  But as you will see below, there are many factors to consider and many scenarios to test.

There are three main areas to think about when testing a date field:

  • What format will be accepted?
  • How will the date be stored in the database?
  • How will the saved date be displayed?  

There are many ways to format a date when entering it into a form.  One very important factor to consider is whether the system is expecting an American format: month, day, year; or a European format: day, month, year.  For example, if I try to enter next Wednesday's date (12/13/2017) into some forms, it won't be accepted if the European format was what the form was expecting, since there is no 13th month.  And if I enter July 4 into this form as 7/4/18, it may be saved to the database as April 7th.  

Beyond the American/European formatting, there are still a myriad of ways to format dates.  For example, will all four digits of the year be expected, or is it possible to put in just the last two digits?  Will single-digit months and days be allowed, or is it necessary to precede those digits with zeroes, such as in 07/04/2018?  What about spelling out the month, as in December 13, 2017?  The developer should have a clear idea of what format or formats will be allowed, and should clearly communicate that to the user.  For example, a tooltip such as "mm/dd/yyyy" can be used inside the field to help the user know what format to use.  Regardless of whether the tooltip is in place, it is important to test with a number of different date formats to ensure that an appropriate error message is displayed when the expected format is not followed.  Also be sure that the date itself is checked for whether it is a valid date; for example, 2/30/2016 should never be allowed, nor should 18/18/18.  

Next, let's consider how the date will be stored in the database.  Some developers, not knowing better, might store the date as a string, rather than as a datetime value.  This is nearly always a bad idea for a number of reasons.  If the accepted format changes over time, or if good validation was not in place in the past, there could be strings where the date is saved as "7/4/2017" and strings where the date is saved as "December 13, 2017".  This will make it difficult to consistently display the data.  Also, if the dates are stored as strings it will be difficult to sort correctly by ascending or descending date.  "2017-12-13" might wind up coming before "3/7/2017" in an ascending sort.  As testers, we should verify that the date is stored as a datetime value, and advocate for a change if it is not. 

It's also important to look at how dates are displayed.  When a user calls up saved information, they should be able to read the dates easily. "2017-12-13T00:00:00" might be the way the date is saved in the database, but a user won't be able to interpret this date quickly.  The developer or designer should decide what date format would be best for display purposes and should stick to it consistently throughout the application.  It's also important to consider what should happen in the case of bad data.  What if there is a date saved in the database that says simply "December 13"?  Should it be displayed as 12/13/0000?  Should it not be displayed at all?  These are important scenarios to consider and test.  

There is one final consideration to make when testing date fields, and that is what the upper and lower limits of the date are.  For example, are dates in the future ever allowed?  What about dates from 100 years ago?  Remember that the future and the past change every day!  Let's say that our application doesn't allow dates in the future.  That means that today, 12/13/17 is not an allowed date in our application.  But by next Wednesday, 12/13/17 will be allowed.  And of course, you may be reading this blog post years in the future, at which time 12/13/17 will be a thing of the past!  

Friday, December 1, 2017

Testing Postal Codes

A text field with a postal code looks so simple, and yet it can be one of the most complex things to test on a form.  There are two important questions to ask before you start testing postal codes:

1. What countries does our application support?
2. What formats will we be accepting for the postal codes?

It always comes as a bit of a relief when I find out that the application I am testing will only be supporting US Zip codes.  Zip codes traditionally come in a five-digit format, such as 10012.  But there are also Zip +4 codes to consider, such as 10012-1234, and this is where the second question comes into play.  Will the application be accepting Zip +4 codes?  Will it be requiring the hyphen between the first five digits and the next four digits, or will a space be accepted as well?  What about just nine straight digits, with no hyphen or space in between?  If nine straight digits will be accepted, it's important to also verify that 6, 7, and 8 digits will not be accepted.  

And there is another very important thing to test with US Zip codes: the leading zero.  There are many fields which will strip leading zeros off of a number upon submission.  It's very important to submit some Zip codes with leading zeros and verify that they have been saved correctly to the database.  

The next likely postal code type you may encounter (if you are based in the US) is the Canadian postal code.  All Canadian postal codes are six characters in this pattern of letters and numbers:  A1A 1A1.  It's important to clarify with the developer whether the space between the two groups of three characters will be expected, or whether you can submit the code with no space.  Hopefully the validation will expect the correct letter-number pattern, and will reject postal codes like 1A1 A1A.

What if your application expects both US and Canadian postal codes?  If this is the case, the third important question to ask is:

3. Will there be a separate validation pattern for each type?

If there is a separate validation pattern, the code may first look to see what country the address contains, and then use the appropriate validation.  In this case, it's a good idea to test that you can't choose "United States" for your country and then add "A1A 1A1" as the postal code.  Or the validation pattern may be chosen by the number of characters submitted.  If six or seven (including the space) characters are submitted, a Canadian validation pattern could be used.  If five, nine, or ten (including the hyphen) characters are submitted, a United States validation pattern could be used.  Understanding what validations the developer is using will allow you to craft appropriate test cases.  For example, in a scenario where only US and Canadian postal codes are used, there should never be a scenario where eight characters are accepted.  

When we move into postal codes for other countries, things can get more confusing.  Many countries have five-digit codes, which are easy to validate.  Other countries, such as Russia, have six-digit codes.  But consider Great Britain, which has postcodes in two sections: the first section can have between two and four characters, and the second section always has three characters. There is a space between the two sections, and the postcode will always start with a letter, not a number.   In this case, it's best if the developer has ways to recognize if a British postcode is being used (perhaps by looking at what country has been entered in the form) and uses a separate validation regex for those codes.  For testing, be sure to try several different valid postcodes from various places in Great Britain, with two, three, and four characters in the first section.  You can also test with codes that have the right number of characters, but have the space in the wrong place, or with a code that has a number as the first character.

Finally, remember to check that the valid postal codes that you have submitted have been saved correctly to the database, and remember to verify that retrieved postal codes are displaying correctly.  Also be sure to check that any invalid codes in the database (that may have been added before the correct validation was in place) are displaying as added, or not at all, and that it's possible to edit both invalid and valid postal codes.  

I hope that this post has helped you see that postal codes are not as simple as they seem!  Asking the three questions listed above can help you and your developer to recognize potential issues even before testing has begun.  


The Power of Pretesting

Having been in the software testing business for a few years now, I've become accustomed to various types of testing: Acceptance Testing...